The women's Sande, or Bundu, society, which is found in Liberia and Sierra Leone, traditionally initiated girls into womanhood by preparing them for marriage, family life, and participation in the women's sphere of community life. When they were deemed to be ready, the high-ranking teacher and society leader introduced them to the community as adult women. On this occasion, each leader wore a voluminous raffia fiber costume and a wooden helmet mask that embodied sowei, the water spirit and guardian deity of the Sande society. In most societies, only men are entitled to carve or wear masks. The exception is the Sande helmet mask: although carved by men, it is worn exclusively by women. This mask is attributed to Manowulo, a Mende sculptor who was active from about 1935 until 1960 in the Baoma chiefdom located north of Jaiama-Bangor near the town of Bo.
The mask represents female perfection and power and personifies women's interests. Beneath the elaborate hairstyle typical of what Mende women wore during the mid-20th century and high forehead are downcast eyes, which are not only a sign of modesty but also the nonhuman essence of the spirit that inhabits the mask. The rings around the neck are an exaggerated representation of the natural increase in body fat that occurs in adolescence, in preparation for childbearing. The mouth is closed or slightly open to signify silence and inner spiritual concentration. The lustrous black pigment or paint staining the mask is a reference to the river-dwelling spirit that inhabits the mask. Black, in the Mende language, means "wet" or "wetness." (DMA)
- Allan Stone collection, New York, USA
- Rago Arts, Tribal Art from the Collection of Allan Stone, October 19, 2018
- d’Azevedo, W. L., 1973, Mask, Makers and Myth in Western Liberia, Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Boone, S. A., 1986, Radiance from the Waters: Ideals of Feminine Beauty in Mende Art. New Haven and London: Yale University Press
- Phillips, R. B., 1995, Representing Woman: Sande Masquerades of the Mende of Sierra Leone. Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History